Acronyms and Technical Terms
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A-21 “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions” – OMB circular published by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that establishes the principles for determining the costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other government agreements with educational institutions (also known as Sponsored Projects).
A-110 “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations “ – OMB circular published by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that establishes standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies in the administration of grants to and agreements with institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations.
A-133 “Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations” – OMB circular published by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that establishes standards for obtaining consistency and uniformity among Federal agencies for the audit of States, local governments, and non-profit organizations expending Federal awards.
AAALAC - American Association for the Accreditation of Lab Animal Care
AALAS – American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
AID- Agency for International Development
AFOSR - Air Force Office of Scientific Research (DOD)
Allocable Costs - allowable costs that directly benefit the grant or contract to which they are being charged.
Allowable Costs - categories of costs that can be charged to a grant, such as salaries and equipment, as stated in OMB A-21. Certain types of costs, such as the cost of alcoholic beverages are not allowable and may not be charged to a contract or grant.
ASSIST (Application Submission System & Interface for Submission Tracking) – a web based system NIH has created for multi-project proposal preparation, submission and tracking. To become available during calendar year 2013.
Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) - an announcement of a federal agency’s general research interests that invites proposals and specifies the general terms and conditions under which an award may be made.
CCR - Central Contractor Registration (applies to federal contractors)
CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CFDA -Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
Challenge Grant – type of grant that provides monies in response to monies from other sources, usually according to a formula. A challenge grant may, for example, offer two dollars for every one that is obtained from a fund drive, and typically have a fixed upper limit
COGR - Council on Governmental Relations
COI Investigator – defined by VCU Policy as “any individual, regardless of title, who is responsible for the design, conduct or reporting of research”
Competing Proposals - proposals that are submitted for the first time or unfunded proposals that are resubmitted; either must compete for research funds. Ongoing projects must compete again if the term of the original award has expired.
Consortium Agreement Group - a collaboration investigators/institutions; arrangement can be formalized with specified terms and conditions.
Continuation Project (Non-Competing) - a project approved for multiple-year funding, although funds are typically committed only one year at a time. At the end of the initial budget period, progress on the project is assessed. If satisfactory, an award is made for the next budget period, subject to the availability of funds. They do not compete with new project proposals and are not subjected to peer review beyond the initial project approval.
Contract - a mechanism for procurement of a product or service with specific obligations for both sponsor and recipient. Typically, a research topic and the methods for conducting the research are specified in detail by the sponsor.
Cooperative Agreement - similar to a grant, but the sponsor’s staff may be actively involved in proposal preparation, and anticipates having substantial involvement in research activities once the award has been made.
COS Pivot - a subscription based web service containing information about scientific expertise, funded scientific research, and funding opportunities for research.
Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) - a collection of federally mandated accounting standards intended to ensure uniformity in budgeting and spending funds.
Cost-Reimbursement Contract/Grant - a contract/grant for which the sponsor pays for the full costs incurred in the conduct of the work up to an agreed-upon amount.
Cost-Sharing - a type of arrangement in which more than one party supports a specific research project. Example: A university receives a grant for a project estimated to have a total cost of $100,000. The sponsor agrees to pay 75% ($75,000) and the university agrees to pay 25% ($25,000). The $25,000 is the cost-sharing component.
CRA - Certified Research Administrator
CRADA or CRDA - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
CSR - Center for Scientific Review (National Institutes of Health)
DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD)
DCAA - Defense Contract Audit Agency
DOED - Department of Education
Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) - regulations for research projects sponsored by the
Department of Defense.
DFARS - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
DHHS - Department of Health and Human Services
DOD - Department of Defense (includes Air Force, Army, ARPA, and Navy)
DOE - Department of Energy
DOI - Department of Interior
DOT - Department of Transportation
DUNS - Data Universal Number System
eSNAP – NIH’s Electronic Streamlined Non-competing Award Process used for the submission of annual progress reports. To be replaced by RPPR - Research Performance Progress Report system by May 2013.
FDA - Food and Drug Administration
FDP - Federal Demonstration Partnership
FIC - Fogarty International Center (NIH)
FOIA - Freedom of Information Act
FCOI - Financial Conflict of Interests policies on NIH funded projects
GSA - General Services Administration
IBC - Institutional Biosafety Committee
iEDISON - Interagency Extramural Invention Information Management System
In-Kind - contributions or assistance in a form other than money. It may be in the form of equipment, materials, or services of recognized value that are offered in lieu of cash in support of a specific project.
Investigator-Initiated Proposal - proposal submitted to a sponsor that is not in response to an RFP, RFA, or a specific program announcement.
IRB - Institutional Review Board
Limitation of Cost (LOC) - A mandatory clause for cost-reimbursement type contracts. Under the clause, the sponsor is not obligated to reimburse the contractor for costs in excess of the stated amount. The contractor, however, is not obligated to continue performance once expenses reach the stated amount.
New and Competing Proposals - proposals that are submitted for the first time or ongoing projects that must compete for funding prior to expiration of the original award.
NCURA – National Council of University Research Administrators
NHLBI - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH)
NIA - National Institute on Aging (NIH)
NIAAA - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH)
NIAID - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH)
NIAMS - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH)
NICHD - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH)
NIDA - National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH)
NIDCD - National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIH)
NIDDK - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH)
NIDR - National Institute of Dental Research (NIH)
NIEHS - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIH)
NIGMS - National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH)
NIH - National Institutes of Health
NHGRI - National Human Genome Research Institute (NIH)
NIMH - National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)
NINDS - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH)
NINR - National Institute for Nursing Research (NIH)
NLM - National Library of Medicine
No Cost Extension (NCE) - extension of the period of performance beyond the expiration data to allow the principal investigator to finish a project. Usually, no additional costs are provided.
Notice of Grant Award (NGA) - the legally binding document that serves as a notification to the recipient and others that an award has been made, including all terms and conditions that apply to the award.
NSF - National Science Foundation
OMB - Office of Management and Budget
ONR - Office of Naval Research OPAS Organizational Prior Approval System
OPRR - Office for Protection from Research Risks (DHHS)
Peer Review – a system using reviewers who are the professional equals of the principal investigator or program director who is to be responsible for directing or conducting the proposed project. It is a form of objective review. Peer review is legislatively mandated in some programs and in other programs is administratively required.
PHS - Public Health Service
PHS 2590 - Application for Continuation of a PHS Grant (National Institutes of Health)
PHS 398 - application form for a PHS Grant (National Institutes of Health)
Pink Sheets – NIH document including a proposal’s priority score and review committee critique (so called as they were once printed on pink paper)
PRDA - Program Research and Development Announcement
Pre-Proposal (or Preliminary Proposal) - a brief description, usually 2-10 pages, of research plans and estimated budget that is sometimes submitted to determine the interest of a particular sponsor prior to submission of a formal proposal
Principal Investigator (PI) - the individual responsible for the conduct of research or other activity described in a proposal for an award.
Prior Approval - requirement for written documentation of permission to use project funds for purposes not in the approved budget, or to change aspects of the program from those originally planned and approved. Prior approval must be obtained before the performance of the act that requires such approval under the terms of the agreement.
Priority Score - a score derived from the rating given a research proposal by each member on a review committee. It is used to help determine which approved proposals will be granted awards, based on funds available.
Program Announcement - Describes existence of a research opportunity. It may describe new or expanded interest in a particular extramural program or be a reminder of a continuing interest in an extramural program.
Program/Project Officer - A sponsor’s designated individual officially responsible for the technical, scientific, or programmatic aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract.
Progress Reports - periodic, scheduled reports required by the sponsor summarizing research progress to date. Technical, fiscal, and invention reports may be required.
Project Period (also called PP) - the total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved. A project period may consist of one or more budget periods. (Also see Budget Period.)
Proposal - An application for funding that contains all information necessary to describe project plans, staff capabilities, and funds requested. Formal proposals are officially approved and submitted by an organization in the name of a principal investigator.
Regulations The contractual rules and procedures governing sponsored research projects.
Renewal - Applicable to grants and cooperative agreements only. A competitively reviewed proposal requesting additional funds extending the scope of work beyond the current project period.
Request for Applications (RFA) - Announcements that indicate the availability of funds for a topic of specific interest to a sponsor. Proposals submitted in response to RFAs generally result in the award of a grant. Specific grant announcements may be published in the Federal Register and/or specific sponsor publications. (Also see Broad Agency Announcements.)
Request for Proposal (RFP) - Announcements that specify a topic of research, methods to be used, product to be delivered, and appropriate applicants sought. Proposals submitted in response to RFPs generally result in the award of a contract. Notices of federal RFPs are published in the Commerce Business Daily.
Request for Quotations (RFQ) - A formal request to potential vendors under federal contracts for a price quotation on equipment or supplies to be purchased.
Revision - A modified and resubmitted request for funding for a project that was previously not funded either because it was denied by the sponsor or withdrawn by the principal investigator.
RPPR (Research Performance Progress Report) – used for the submission of Streamlined Non-competing Award Process (SNAP) annual progress reports.
SBIR - Small Business Innovative Research
Senior Personnel - Professional personnel who are responsible for the scientific or technical direction of project.
Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) - Agency administered programs supported by ear-marked federal funds, making grants to small business entities.
Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) - Grant applications and/or programs to fund small business formally teamed with a research institution.
Small Grant - A special type of award, often limited to a beginning researcher. Typically, such an award may be obtained for one year only.
SMARTS - SPIN Matching And Researcher Transmittal System
SPIN/Sponsored Programs Information Network - An on-line search system available by subscription for research opportunities developed by the InfoEd.
SRA - Society of Research Administrators
Stipend - payment made to an individual under a fellowship or training grant in accordance with pre- established levels to provide for the individual’s living expenses during the period of training.
STTR - Small Business Technology Transfer